Scrubbing - the Scourge of Journalism: The Ethical Issue No One is Talking About, Because It’s Deleted
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session Jessie Wilkie
Simply put, ‘scrubbing’ (first coined by Silverman, 2009) is the action of removing something from existence. In the born-digital news world this could mean changing a mistake in a story and thus changing the master copy, or removing a story from a website, therefore erasing it from existence. While the trope that ‘once it’s on the internet it’s there forever’ is not always true, things can be changed, removed and edited without the audience’s knowledge. But what impact does this have on the information? Are we rewriting history when we scrub information? News is a historical account of the world at the time, it's not just important for democracy but for our cultural and sociological health. Retrospectively altering articles is a dangerous game. This paper proposes some research Ideas and practical measures which could help the problem, while also discussing the issues in depth with case studies to show the true scope.
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session Amara Felix Toussaint
Data consistently demonstrates that men are almost always represented on European sport organization boards, even in organizations and boards concerned with women’s sport (Adriaanse, 2018). Regionally the composition of national sporting bodies lacks female representation. The governing bodies for the two most popular sports in the English-speaking Caribbean; Cricket West Indies and CONCACAF both have one sole female amongst the male dominated board of directors. The purpose of this current research is to highlight the experiences of women leaders in sport; and validate their experiences. For this research the hegemonic masculinity theory (Connell 1987, 1995) guides the research and its methodology. Open ended interviews are used as the segway to uncover the reality of present female administrators, and women in leadership roles in sport in Trinidad and Tobago. There is currently a dearth in literature regarding women leadership in Caribbean sport. This would benefit the Caribbean region by yielding current research and igniting new perspectives on this contentious issue. This new data can be used to inform strategic appointments and decisions in sporting organizations in tandem with United Nations sustainable development goal five; gender equality and empower all women and girls.
One of the most significant changes in the history of college sports is the recent adoption of rules by the NCAA allowing for players to market their Names, Images, and Licensing (NIL) for profit. These rules allow players to sign commercial endorsement deals, sell their own images/branding on apparel, and charge money for autographs (among other ways to capitalize on NIL). The NCAA was forced to adopt such rules in response to federal court decisions, notably NCAA v. Alston, decided in 2021 by the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in the players favor. The movement towards NIL in college athletics has, of course, inspired much commentary. Critics broadly contend that NIL deals a death blow to amateurism, which they argue is an essential component of intercollegiate athletics. Supports of NIL make the overarching claim that student-athletes are exploited by NCAA members schools as millions of dollars are being made off the sweat of modestly compensated scholarship athletes, who are taking all the physical risks. Within those competing narratives are other more nuanced discussions about the role of student athletes and the impact of big-time college sports on the educational missions of member schools. In this research we employ Q methodology to examine the subjective appraisals of college sports fans of the NCAA’s adoption of NIL, in order to identify the structure of that subjectivity.