Poster Session

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Yusuf Hassan, Fellow, OB-HRM & Sports Management, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholms län, Sweden
Steph Doehler, Staff Tutor and Associate Lecturer, School of Education, Childhood, Youth, and Sport, The Open University, United Kingdom

Is There a Correlation between Hypermobility of the Spine and Chronic Back/Neck Pain in Young Adults? View Digital Media

Poster Session
Peter Reuter  

Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) often presents with chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSP). Our study looked into a possible correlation of hypermobility of the spine and chronic back/neck pain in young adults. Undergraduate students at our university were invited to complete an anonymous survey that included questions about chronic musculoskeletal pain and the severity of pain. They were also assessed for hypermobility of the spine, i.e., the ability to rest the palms of their hands flat on the floor with both knees fully extended. Preliminary data analysis suggests that participants with spine hypermobility were more likely to report chronic neck/back pain than participants without spine hypermobility. However, this differs for male and female participants, as male participants with spine hypermobility were more likely to report chronic neck/back pain than male participants without spine hypermobility, but female participants with spine hypermobility were not more likely to report chronic neck/back pain than female participants without spine hypermobility. Additionally, neither male nor female participants with spine hypermobility reported different averages of pain intensity for their chronic neck/back pain.

Influence of Strength Training on the Self-efficacy of Sports Performance: National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes Experience of a Strength Training Program View Digital Media

Poster Session
Alfred Caronia  

This pilot study explores an NCAA Division 1 female volleyball players’ experience of a strength and conditioning program and the result this has on self-efficacy of sport skill performance. This phenomenological study comprised of 10 college aged participants that have strength training program experience. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and a reflective journal he transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. From the analysis, four themes emerged: performance enhancement, injury prevention, motivational experience, and a learning experience. From the players’ perspective care needs to be taken to explain the purpose of an exercise and the benefit it will have for play performance. Other factors that play an important role in a strength training program is team motivation, individual goal setting, bonding, and communication with the strength coach, as all these items appear to be fundamentals of coaching.

Covering Gender and Social Change: Sports, Women’s Pages & Title IX View Digital Media

Poster Session
Kimberly Voss  

The women’s pages of newspapers were important information sources about gender and equality issues in the 1960s and the 1970s. Specifically, Title IX was covered in a different way than the news sections. After all, many of the women’s page journalists experienced gender-based inequities – including education and athletics. Part of the women’s reporting on the topic was due to the states and federal Commission on the Status of Women. President John F. Kennedy’s Presidential Commission on the Status of Women was established in 1961. The Commission’s report, American Women was published in 1963. It recommended that each state form similar commissions. Equality in education and sports were part of the mission. The women’s pages often covered the topic. This study explores the intersection between Title IX, women’s pages, and sports.

Exploring Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Physical Literacy and the Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Physical Activity View Digital Media

Poster Session
Jon Aoki  

This study describes pre-service teachers’ physical literacy and how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted their physical activity during the lockdown. The participants are EC-6 credential-seeking teacher candidates enrolled at a four-year public university in southeast Texas. One hundred and two students completed a survey. A constant-comparative method was applied to identify and classify critical elements in participant responses. The results suggest that the participants perceive physical activity and exercise similarly, defined as any form of body movement. The most common perception of physical activity and exercise was any cardiovascular-focused activity. Participants that regularly exercised performed predominantly cardiovascular activities. The fundamental reason for exercising was to be healthy. Less than half of the participants exercised periodically pre-pandemic, but over 50% participated in exercise during the lockdown. Understanding the pre-service teachers’ physical literacy and physical activity habits during the lockdown is critical to facilitate healthy lifestyle habits in this population.

“You Can’t Do That!” Subjective Group Dynamics and Moral Reasoning Strategies in Sports Fans View Digital Media

Poster Session
Sean Pradhan,  Dae Hee Kwak,  Sean Laraway,  Susan Snycerski  

Sports fans expect athletes to achieve excellence and uphold character both on and off the field. For instance, athletes who engage in fair sportsmanship, respect, and obedience to authority are hailed as heroes, while those who infringe upon such virtues are derogated. Regardless of their actions, athletes are evaluated by sports fans in a variety of ways, given that individual differences in moral values and processing of moral-related behaviors exist. These mechanisms are referred to as moral reasoning strategies. Using the lens of subjective group dynamics, the purpose of the current study is to determine how sports fans utilize various moral reasoning strategies to judge athlete performance and moral-related behaviors. We conducted an online experiment using a 2 (group: ingroup, rival outgroup) × 2 (type of behavior: performance, moral) × 2 (nature of behavior: positive, negative) between subjects design, with group manipulations reflected via fictitious articles about actual college football athletes. We captured self-reported ratings of moral reasoning (i.e., decoupling, coupling, and rationalization), identification with the ingroup team, perception of rivalry between the teams, as well as the athlete’s perceived competence and integrity. Results revealed an ingroup favoritism effect and proclivity to provide higher ratings of competence and integrity towards positive behaviors (e.g., strong performance and sound moral character). We also found a positive relationship between moral coupling and perceived competence of the athlete, along with a positive association between moral decoupling and perceived integrity. Practical implications and future directions for research are also discussed.

Athletics Positioning in Schools View Digital Media

Poster Session
Zachary Basso  

The focus of this pilot study was aimed at investigating one New York State high school's approach to sponsoring athletics among other aspects of curricular/extracurricular programming. Research captured the perspective(s) of relevant stakeholder groups. These included one principal, one athletic director, two teacher-athletic coaches, one admin-athletic coach, and two student athletes. Research began with a close review of relevant literature. Qualitative methods were used in this pilot study. Data was drawn from interviews, school mission/vision documents, and an athletic code of conduct. These data points were triangulated, analyzed, and coded using in-vivo and thematic coding. This research is a small contribution to the topic of school sponsored athletics, and approaches one school uses when programming and sponsoring athletics. Little research has sought to uncover how interscholastic sports function among other aspects of curricular/extracurricular programming. School sponsorship of athletics is very prevalent in US secondary schools. Research has pointed to the potential of athletics to enhance or subvert curricular goals of a school. More research must be conducted to understand how sports are best positioned in schools, and how the benefits to a school can be best harnessed.

British Soccer and Homophobic Hate Crime: Are the socially progressive attitudes in London disconnected from localised fan bases of Northern England?

Poster Session
Peter Evans  

De Keere (2018b) argued that, as social beings, humans endlessly pursue moral recognition or self-worth and therefore, the role of morality remains a vital element within the study of social cohesion and conflict. As such, homophobic chanting at UK soccer grounds, juxtaposed with ‘hate crime’ legislation, provides a porthole into British social frictions as it grapples with the disparate loci of an increasingly moral, progressive society conflicting with embedded, localised values. British society (Evans 2023) imagines that gay people should be able to access soccer stadia without the fear of discrimination but remain unconscious as to both the impact that homophobic chanting can have and the punitive criminal punishments it induces. Meanwhile, the legal authorities within England are robustly pursuing a subjective policy that identifies perceived homophobic activity as a ‘hate-crime.’ In April 2023, an English Premier League soccer team (Wolves) made an announcement to its own supporters to refrain from chanting a homophobic song at rival Chelsea supporters. The response from supporters was derisive and the song was repeated by an even larger number of supporters. West Midlands police made three arrests based on hate crime laws and the actions of the supporters was condemned by both clubs. This prompted outrage from Wolves supporters on social networks and highlighted the difference that exists between moral laws and fan values. This research answers the call for further research into the potential geodemographic divide between northern and southern attitudes towards a progressive agenda on socially acceptable language in English Football stadium.

Comparative Case Study of Gender Equality in Sports Discourses in Taiwan and the United States View Digital Media

Poster Session
Wayland Chang  

Gender equality in sports discourses in the United States and Taiwan is examined in this comparative case study. The research investigates how social constructions of gender affect sports discourse in both countries. Also explored were the various debates about gender equality in sports have evolved and how these debates have influenced the public's perception of women's sports. Furthermore, the study looks into the policies put in place to guarantee gender equality in athletics and the success of those policies. The research also investigates the factors that may encourage Taiwanese women to participate in athletics. The results show that women's sports participation was favorably influenced by their internal locus of control, socialization agents, and sport socialization situation. Furthermore, predictors of coaches' and athletes' views toward sexual minority athletes are being studied. The results show that among male coaches and female athletes, good experiences with sexual minorities were related to a more positive outlook toward homosexual and lesbian athletes. This research aims to understand how cultural norms affect the discourse of gender equality in sports and to give potential solutions for future advancement.

A Review of the Literature on the Novelty Effect of New Stadiums and Arenas on Attendance View Digital Media

Poster Session
Jamie Stangel,  David Rolling  

There have been conflicting reports on the positive effect a new stadium or arena can have on the attendance numbers for an organization. This positive effect, known as the "novelty effect," encourages decision makers that the investment into a new facility will provide the necessary return. Reviewing the research on this effect from studies in various leagues and organization sizes provides team owners, politicians, and key stakeholders a better perspective on the true impact a new facility can have on attendance.

Digital Media

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