The Philippine Basketball Association: A Professional Sport's League Impact on a Country as Its Community View Digital Media
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session Severino Sarmenta
American colonizers introduced basketball and other sports in the Philippines to infuse a sporting culture in a country that had not really known organized sport under Spanish rule. Little did the Americans know that basketball would become the Philippines’ most popular as collegiate leagues and commercial tournaments attracted huge audiences at venues and in broadcasting and print media platforms. International success and intense rivalries in local tournaments spurred the game to immense popularity. Filipinos found a sport it could play well and ended up winning regional international tournaments and even placing third in the 1954 World Basketball Championships. Established in 1975, the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) is a 47-year old professional league that has stemmed from the game’s popularity. PBA teams depart from the usual global professional community or city based squads since Filipino corporations sponsor teams to promote brand names and products. This paper examines the PBA’s impact on the Philippines as a country-community. The league provides employment for players, media, utility staff and venues as well as income for the broadcast and media entities that cover the games. The PBA also serves as the year-round tournament to hone players who will represent the country in international basketball competitions. The league also holds socio-civic projects in communities and provinces where its games are held like basketball clinics, medical missions and others. The paper also proposes other activities and long-term engagements that could benefit the community further beyond the basketball court.
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session Christos Anagnostopoulos
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a widely used shorthand term to cover a multitude of corporate activities. In this research project, the concept of CSR is used to describe the way in which football clubs in England have mobilized resources in the service of a variety of community-related programs. The present study follows recent developments within the broader sport management research and builds on the theoretical grounding of institutional work to offer empirical insights on how the formulation and implementation of CSR-related programs actually happen. In doing so, it largely responds to recent calls of “how does institutional work shape policy and practice to address the world’s grand challenges?” Thirty-two CSR managers were interviewed through snowball and purposive sampling. The sample provided a good mixture of football-playing status as it consisted of twelve clubs from the Premiership and thirteen clubs from the Championship. The present study makes two key contributions. Firstly, it unpacks implementation of CSR in sport by elucidating the specific institutional works caried out by the people assigned the responsibility for doing so. It offers a conceptual model that explains how the implementation process unfolds through four types of institutional work.
Effect of Small A Side Recreational Basketball on Depression, Self-Esteem, and Motivation in Untrained Males View Digital Media
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session Rakesh Tomar
The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of small-sided recreational basketball on self-esteem, motivation to exercise, and depression. Participants were 24 male untrained males randomly assigned equally into two groups; intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Three a side supervised recreational basketball was offered to participants in IG for 12 weeks. Games were played on the half-court for 30 minutes, twice a week. Between-group differences in delta values (post minus pre-values) were tested by independent T-Test. For statistical significance, P-value was set at 0.05. T-Test revealed a significant difference in depression (t20 = 2.183, P = 0.042) between the two groups, with mean depression of 4.72 ± 2.05 and 8.45 ± 2.62 in IG and CG respectively. Whereas no difference was seen in self-esteem scores in both groups (t20 = -0.105, P = 0.918) where mean self-esteem was 24.45 ± 3.44 and 21.09 ± 5.50 in IG and CG respectively. None of the sub-scale BREQ-2 had shown significant improvement. Amotivation (t20 = 0.867, P = 0.396), External regulation (t20 = 1.074, P = 0.296), Introjected regulation (t20 = 0.279, P = 0.783), Identified regulation (t20 = 0.833, P = 0.415), Intrinsic regulation (t20 = -0.260, P = 0.798). Small-sided recreational basketball has shown a favorable reduction in symptoms of depression among participants. Our program was not effective in improving motivation towards exercise and there is no significant increase in the self-esteem of participants.