Watching the Watch: Weber, Bloch and Manheim Lenses in the Discourse of the Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ 4th Watch


The study investigated utopia of hope found inside the discourse of the Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ 4th Watch, a sect of the Christian faith in the Philippines, viewed through Max Weber, Ernst Bloch, and Karl Mannheim lenses. This paper examines the level of hope inside the discourse of the organization. Presented is the personality of Arsenio Tan Ferriol, his church and its members. It scrutinized the discourse of the organization using the theories of Weber, Bloch and Mannheim. To understand the elements of hope organization’s discourse, Bloch’s theory was employed. Mannheim’s theory was applied to dig and find out the conflict between ideology and utopia. Weber’s theory was used to trace Protestantism in the discourse that operates in the field of economics. Comparison of all the discourses were determined after thorough analysis. We interpret degree of hope to find out the organization’s Philippine socio-political implications with the following results: 1. That the organization has utopia, but it is not enough yet to create social change. 2. The PMCC 4th Watch and Protestants being of the same roots have a lot of similarities 3. The group led by Ferriol since its foundation in 1974, is taught that God calls Apostles to lead the church. 4. Convinced that although their leader may eventually retire or in the event of death, God will call someone to lead the organization, and, 5. Members do not base faith on charisma but on doctrines, the group is not in danger of disintegration.


Ma.Gemma Rojales
Unit Head/Quasi-Administrator, Languages and Communication/Institute of Human Potential and Development, Kolehiyo ng Lungsod ng Dasmarinas, Cavite, Philippines


Presentation Type

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session


Religious Community and Socialization


Watcher, Religion, Protestantism, Utopia, Hope

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