Expanding Complexities

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Anna Merry, Assistant Professor, Department of Arts and Communication, Frederick University, Cyprus

After the Awards : Exploring the Long-term Impact of Academic Design-build Projects on Clients, Occupants and the Public View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Michael Hughes,  Bruce Wrightsman,  Emily McGlohn  

The processes and productions common to academic design-build programs have been well documented in books and popular media over the past twenty-five years. Through these texts we have come to know the paradigm in terms of the focus on full-scale making, collaborative learning and community engagement exemplified by the work at Yale Building Studio, Rural Studio and Studio 804. A review of the current literature on ‘design-build’ education reveals a bounty of images of students doing construction along with photos of the often-beautiful outcomes dominate the published material as the mytho-poetic power of aesthetic seduction overshadows the more banal minutia associated with budgeting, supply chain management, scheduling and legal contract that equally define the reality of design-build teaching and learning This paper expands the normative skill set associated with design-build to include logistics, long-term planning and assessment. Specifically, we conduct a post-occupancy evaluation of three celebrated, (published and/or award winning), civic design-build projects from three different universities. The goal of the study is not to reinforce or confirm the legitimacy of the individual projects or design-build education. Rather, the paper aims to foster deeper, more honest discourse on the underlying pedagogy and learning outcomes as well as impact(s) and the legacies these projects have on the community and environment while also addressing the challenges imposed by administrative and institutional structures within academia.

Using Design Thinking to Address Escalating Commitment Risks in Decision-making View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Tim Cooke,  Joan Dickinson  

Plan-continuation bias (PCB) is the cognitive tendency of an individual to continue with an existing plan, even if one or numerous factors threaten the plan or indicate it is no longer viable. In aviation, this bias is colloquially known as “get-there-itis” and has caused pilots to make harmful decisions causing preventable crashes. The purpose of this study was to apply design-thinking (DT) methods to better understand decision-making aspects that can lead to PCB and escalation of commitment (EoC) in a management setting. The DT strategies were employed across six phases: 1. Problem tree analysis, a technique for brainstorming and analyzing causes and effects of EoC and stakeholder mapping completed by the research team; 2. Interviewing a sample of 10 participants with management experience and engaging them with a what’s on your radar exercise where they simultaneously brainstormed ideas and mapped them on a board by importance and context; 3. Affinity clustering by the research team to organize phase one and two into themes; 4. A creative matrix completed by participants based on the findings from phase one and two; 5. Prototyping of a Quick Reference Guide (QRG), a short document explaining a set of ideas, featuring the research/results up to that point by the research team; and 6. Participant critique of the QRG. Solutions included understanding and addressing psychological, sociological, and contextual elements that contribute to cognitive biases and ultimately impact decisions. Keeping an open mind is more complex than individual behavior and requires tailoring an environment that is supportive.

Integral Multi-criteria Evaluation of the Spatial and Environmental Design Based on the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Concepts View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Maria Kokorska  

The paper presents an integral criterion for making a decision when choosing alternatives in the environmental design based on weighted distance to the ideal solution. It is also proposes simplified integral method based on ranking according to individual criteria. The methods are applied to solve a decision problem and the results and complexity of the solution are compared with the well-known multicriteria optimization and trade-off method‐ VIKOR. Recommendations are given regarding their effective implementation.

A Biofeedback Dashboard for the Emotional Self-regulation of People with Autism during the Use of Virtual Reality-based Training Systems View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Alejandro Reyes,  Dominique Michaud,  Jonathan Proulx Guimond,  Valery Psyche,  Cathia Papi,  Menard Alexandre,  Rency Inson Michel,  Julie Ruel,  Sylvain Letscher,  Isabelle Feillou,  Claude Vincent,  Jocelyne Kiss  

The integration and training processes in a new job is challenging for individuals with autism. To assist them in these processes, virtual reality-based interview and task training tools have been devised. However, existing solutions are limited in the degree to which they can simulate a realistic environment and collect user performance data to provide feedback to improve the professional outcome of this population. To address these technological and conceptual limitations and understand how to create effective coaching and training tools, we have designed a feedback dashboard that combines virtual reality and wearable technology in one integrated platform. Our design emphasizes an immersive user experience for training effectiveness and uses physiological sensors to provide affective biofeedback. Real-time representation of biomarkers includes neurofeedback signals such as attention and stress levels, and the biofeedback signal of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), or heart rate variability in synchrony with respiration; a characteristic biomarker of processes related to emotion regulation in individuals with autism. We report the results of a usability study in which participants evaluated the feedback dashboard for feasibility, usability, and perceived usefulness.

A Framework for Optimized Building Information Modeling Adoption in the Construction Industry in Egypt: Application in the “Pre-construction Phase” According to Project Complexity View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Carole Elraheb,  Hassan Abdel Salam,  Asmaa Hasan  

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a relatively recent technology within the construction industry that, when properly introduced, can result in more efficient design practices. Egypt started its first steps towards BIM which begin to be implemented in some mega projects. Resisting to be left behind, Egyptian firms must embrace and evolve with the BIM revolution to keep pace with international progression. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the concept of using BIM as a management tool in the Egyptian construction sector. In addition, Project Complexity (PC) is being studied as a key factor influencing BIM adoption in the market. The PC index is assessed to indicate the BIM steps suitable for each complexity level. Encouraging the collaboration of stakeholders, an expertise survey takes place to investigate the potential of BIM adoption at diverse PC levels. Moreover, an organized framework for BIM implementation is formulated and tested.

Design Thinking and Library Practice: Inspiring Initiatives and User-centered Services, Programs, and Physical Spaces View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Jennifer Palilonis,  Sarah Allison  

Design thinking has emerged in library science as a process to develop user-centered services, programs, and physical spaces. Design thinking is a nonlinear, human-centered process for problem-solving that allows for iterative work in collaborative settings. Different definitions of design thinking exist, but the underlying concept is the same: talk to your customers/users, consider their needs, and implement change accordingly. Stanford’s d.school presents five nonlinear stages of design thinking: empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test, a process used in architecture, engineering, and graphic and industrial design. It was first introduced to academic libraries in 2007 and further enhanced by IDEO's Design Thinking for Libraries, a toolkit developed through support from the Gates Foundation. Since then, design thinking has led to development of an ideation space at University of Oregon’s Knights Library and youth activities at the Seattle Public Library, to name a few. However, design thinking has been criticized as a reductive method advertised to company executives as a magic wand for innovation. Library and information science professionals have also expressed criticism, citing concerns that the practice is nothing more than a passing fad. Nonetheless, many industries implement design thinking for creative problem solving, transformative change, and to foster innovation. This paper analyzes design thinking in library settings through research that includes surveys and interviews with members of the American Library Association. We identify current uses of design thinking in libraries, investigate the nature of current implementations of design thinking, and provide recommendations for future design thinking projects in libraries.

Digital Media

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