Social Approaches

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Dan Mu, Student, Phd Candidate, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Understanding the Effects of the Viewing Medium on Our Comprehension of Images View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Thomas Marotta  

This paper represents part of a broader qualitative study examining the change in our comprehension of the two-dimensional photographic image due to the shift from traditional forms of printed communication and information dissemination to digitally-based information exchange and communication systems, devices and applications. Exposure to digitally networked technologies is reconfiguring our brain, resulting in a change in how we access and process information. Digital technologies provide great affordance for the way people use, view and exchange images. The number of locative and temporal spaces where we encounter images has increased with images constantly moving through these spaces. We view digital images in many more situations than previously possible through traditional forms of print communication such as magazines or newspapers. These encounters are mediated through: the type of technology delivering the image; the context of communication; whether a blog or a corporate website; our viewing intent toward the image; for social contact or study; and the impact of stimuli present in our surroundings. The paper proposes a model for understanding and articulating these mediations to expand visual communication discourse beyond traditional semiotic analysis and incorporate our mental and physiological responses to images as influenced by technology. The P.E.M.I. (Physical, External, Medium, Image properties) Effects Compass has been developed from the research to provide a holistic overview of effects on image apprehension through four critical coordinates: viewing medium, the medium’s physical characteristics and external influences.

Featured Policy Design: Redesigning the Traditional Policy Cycle Towards Human-centredness View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Andrea Petz,  Breidenich Christof  

Studies show that citizens’ dissatisfaction with current policymaking is growing. This is partly due to the steady focus on problem-solving, which moves politics further away from citizens’ needs. Therefore, traditional methods can no longer address the increasing complexity of political-societal problems. To counteract this growing issue, Policy Design is introduced to enable policymakers to better deal with complex challenges, seeking to achieve more effective and human-centred policy outcomes. Policy Design refers to a creative way of addressing wicked problems by integrating designerly approaches and mindsets into policymaking. This implies an open-ended and iterative process, which focuses on human needs and adapting to continuously changing conditions. This paper critically questions the traditional Policy Cycle and its impact on policy outcomes. As a research method and in addition to scientific research, qualitative interviews with eleven international experts from diverse domains were conducted, reaching from the political to the design field. The research findings reveal three points of criticism: The first demonstrates policymaking as an isolated, linear, and top-down approach. The second identifies a critical gap between policy formulation and policy implementation and the third criticises the lack of active participation in the policymaking process. To respond to those criticism, a redesign of the traditional Policy Cycle is proposed, which combines a human-centred approach and the Double Diamond Design Process. More specifically, a participatory, cross-functional, and agile policymaking process is introduced, in order to develop policies based on people’s needs. In all, the paper clarifies the potential that design can unleash in policymaking.

A Cultural Inventory Tool for Studio: Advancing Cultural Consciousness in the Design View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Marianne Holbert  

While conversations around equity, diversity, and inclusion have become more common, what tools and practices support these discussions the design education? How often do faculty and students reflect on the values present in the design studio? Will taking inventory of the cultural forces of the studio better support an inclusive culture? This research focuses on the questions above through the examination of cultural dimensions present in the design studio to better support more culturally sensitive environments. This study shares current research on cultural dimensions in studio-based education and a didactic, new Cultural Inventory Tool for Studio (CITS). CITS is a pedagogical survey tool designed for faculty, students, and designers that explores the presence and impact of ten cultural parameters in the studio and the spectrums of variability to comprehend the dimensions of culture most likely to impact studio-based education instructional situations. It aids in the examination, evaluation, and discussion of the values and practices present that influence how people work, think, and engage in diverse social, cultural, and professional situations. The survey tool is divided into three central categories: 1) Social Relationships which focuses on the social structures, intrapersonal power dynamics, and group dynamics, 2) Epistemological Beliefs which anchors the structure of knowledge and justified beliefs, particularly how they are formed and the frameworks that shape them, and 3) Temporal Perceptions which address concepts of time. This paper addresses CITS methodology, current CITS findings, and strategies for advancing cultural consciousness in design education.

Design of Ceramic Streets in World Crafts and Folk Art Cities: Cases from Jingdezhen in China View Digital Media

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Lin Zhang  

The World Crafts and Folk Art City has been selected by the UNESCO Creative Cities Network since 2004, and Jingdezhen has been included in the list thanks to its porcelain-making tradition and contemporary heritage. As one of the first Chinese craft cities to be selected, Jingdezhen today attracts many ceramic enthusiasts and visitors to the city with its many ceramic streets. An exploration of the design approach to ceramic streets in Jingdezhen helps architects and urban designers to understand how to design the space in urban streets highlighted by crafts, while suggesting new possibilities for the integrated use of architectural heritage and cultural heritage. In order to reveal the spatial design patterns of such craft streets, the paper takes a number of ceramic streets in Jingdezhen, China, as examples, and uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods, combined with specific tools such as literature combing, historical maps, Point of Interest (POI) and architectural form analysis, to summarize the spatial design characteristics of ceramic streets and distil spatial elements and design methods from them. The study found that the distribution of ceramic streets is closely related to the historical distribution of ceramic factories; the street space consists of spatial elements such as temporary stalls, shops along the street, creative parks or factories; most of today's ceramic streets have been stripped of their production space.

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